Each unmarked corner is a carbon. Can you count all 6 carbons in Glucose?
Glucose is our primary source of chemical energy.
Plants take in CO2, and use the energy from photons of light to break up those bonds and form higher energy C-C bonds. After more chemical reactions take place in the Calvin Cycle within the plant, the plant synthesizes sugar molecules in the form of Glucose. We consume this glucose in its pure form or attached to other molecules, and it drives all of the energy demands of our bodies.
In chemistry, saccharide is another word for "sugar." Glucose is a monosaccharide.
Here are some of the mono-saccharides (think mono = one!) Glucose is the primary monosaccharide our body metabolizes, but the chemical structures of other saccharides only differ in a few atoms and can be rapidly converted to Glucose in the body.
Mono = 1; Di = 2; Tri = 3; Poly = 4+
Lactose is a disaccharide.
Sucrose is a disaccharide.
Cellulose is a polysaccharide
Saccharides have a lot of polar chemical bonds that attract water. Because these carbon-compounds are often found in a hydrated environment, saccharides are also known as "Carbohydrates".
Glucose is overwhelmed by his Water stans. What a chad.
Foods rich in carbohydrates. Yes, even the paper bag is a carb (Cellulose)
Biochemistry is the field of chemistry that pertains to biological compounds. Biochemists analyze chemicals to predict how they will interact within other living environments.
If you plan to major in Biochemistry, you will have to know all of the structures, names, and numbers of each of the cycles below for Carbohydrate metabolism. Every doctor has to know these for the MCAT! Do you think you can memorize them all?
In Glycolysis (pictured above), Glucose is converted into Pyruvate. This process creates 2 ATP for the cell and often occurs in the cytosol.
Citric Acid Cycle
In the Citric Acid Cycle (aka Kreb's Cycle/TCA), pyruvate is further metabolized to harness more chemical energy. This cycle produces more ATP and high energy molecules (NADH and FADH2) that get processed in the Mitochondria. This is also where protein and fat are metabolized.
Insulin is a hormone that allows glucose to enter cells to be metabolized for energy.
Blood Glucose monitors usually measure concentration in mg/dL. A normal range is 80-120 mg/dL.
Diabetics have a malfunctioning pancreas, and can not easily regulate their blood glucose levels.
Even in non-diabetics, Glucose spikes cause insulin spikes, which leads to hypoglycemia.
The rate at which certain foods affect blood glucose is defined by the Glycemic Index
High glycemic index foods cause fast spikes in blood sugar. Avoid those items if you want to give your pancreas a break.
Macronutrients are chemicals that give us biological energy.
Carbohydrates are 1 of the 4 main macronutrient groups. If you reduce your carbohydrate intake, your body still needs energy. Some alternative diets, like Paleo or Keto, usually recommend consuming more of the other macronutrients to compensate for the reduced calories from lowering Carbohydrate intake.
Diet can be a very personal topic, since everyone has different nutritional needs.
Just remember, nutritional science changes very frequently and everyone works differently, so there is no "best diet," just one that works best for you. While many of us probably eat something similar to the Standard American Diet (50% Carbohydrates), some would prefer to eat Vegan to ease their conscious and others may prefer a high-fat Paleo/Keto approach to food.
When we consume more calories than we burn, that mass is conserved in our body.
1 lb of fat = 3500 kCal
My Glucose (10 points + 10 points EC)
"We have to cook."
(5 points) Find a picture and a name of at least 5 of your favorite food dishes!
Kung Pao Chicken
Carne Asada Tacos
Sarma (Grape Leaves)
Broccoli Cheddar Soup
(5 points) Create your recipe IRL. Take at least 5 snapshots during the building process.
Boil & salt water
Boil pasta and drain when ready
Melt 6 tbsp of butter
Add 1 tbsp of minced garlic and 2 tbsp of All purpose flour and whisk
Pour in 1 1/2 cup of heavy cream and 1 1/2 cup of milk and whisk
Sprinkle in 1/2 cup of parmesan cheese and season to taste
Pour sauce into noodles and mix until all noodles are covered
Top with parmesan cheese and parsley flakes and serve